Metarhizium majus and Metarhizium robertsii show enhanced activity against the coleopteran pests Holotricha serrata and Oryctes rhinoceros
Keywords:Holotricha serrata, Metarhizium spp. Oryctes rhinoceros, Powder based formulation (PBF), Topical conidial suspension (TCS)
AbstractStudies were conducted to systematically isolate Metarhizium isolates from the insect cadavers and soils of South India. Morphological and PCR amplified sequences of 5.8S ITS regions and RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) gene regions were used to identify the isolates at species level. Eight Metarhizium isolates were isolated and initially identified by morphological and microscopic studies. Further identification was confirmed through 5.8SrRNA ITS and RPB1 analysis. They were identified as three isolates of M. robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber sp. nov. (ArMz3R, ArMz3S and ArMz6W), one isolate of M. majus (J.R. Johnst.) J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (VjMz1W) and four isolates of M. anisopliae (WnMz1S, NlMz2S, BgMz2S and DhMz4R). Topical conidial suspensions (TCS) and powder based formulations (PBF) of the eight indigenous isolates of Metarhizium spp. that were isolated from insect cadavers and soils of South India were tested against coleopteran pests Holotricha serrata L. and Oryctes rhinoceros L. that cause serious damage to sugarcane and palm trees respectively. Against H. serrata TCS of M. robertsii (ArMz6W) was the most effective with an LC50 of 6.893í—105 cfu/ml and caused 100% mortality against the 3rd instar larvae in 5 days; PBF elicited an LC50 of 7.502í—105 cfu/ml with 96% mortality in 10 days. Against O. rhinoceros TCS (LC50 of 9.75í—105 cfu/ml) of M. majus (VjMz1W) caused 90% mortality in 7 days and the PBF (LC50 of 9.57í—105 cfu/ml) caused 86% mortality in 14 days. The results establish that M. robertsii is highly effective against H. serrata and against O. rhinoceros, M. majus was the most effective. The TCS formulations of these two strains can be readily deployed for field applications.
Anitha V, Rogersb DJ, Wightmanc J, Wardd A. 2006. Distribution and abundance of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on groundnut in southern India. Crop Prot. 25: 732–740. Crossref.
Bedford GO. 2013. Biology and Management of Palm dynastid Beetles: Recent Advances. Ann Rev Entomol. 58: 353–372. Crossref. PMid:23317044
Bischoff SA, Rehner SA, Humber RA. 2009. A Multilocus pylogeny of Metarhizium anisopliae lineage. Mycologia 101: 512–530. Crossref. PMid:19623931
Chandel RS, Mandeep Pathania1 KS, Verma BB, Sumit V, Vinod Kumar. 2015. The Ecology and Control of Potato, Whitegrubs of India. Potato Res. 58: 147–164. Crossref.
Driver F, Milner RJ, Trueman WH. 2000. A taxonomic revision of Metarhizium based on a phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequence data. Mycol Res. 104 (2): 134–150. Crossref.
Easwaramoorthy S, Srikanth J, Santhalakshmi G, Geetha N. 2004. Laboratory and field studies on Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch, against Holotrichia serrata F. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in sugarcane. Proceedings of the Annual Convention Sugar Technologists Association of India 66: 3–A19.
Fleming WE. 1968. Biological control of the Japanese beetle. USDA-ARS Tech Bull No. 1383. 78.
Hurpin B, Robert PH. 1972. Comparison of the activity of certain pathogens of the cockchafer Melolontha melolontha in plots of natural meadowland. J Invertebr Pathol. 19: 291–298. Crossref.
Hu G, st. Leger RJ. 2002. Field studies using a recombinant mycoinsecticide (Metarhizium anisopliae) reveal that it is rhizosphere competent. Appl Environ Microbiol. 68: 6383–6387. Crossref. PMid:12450863 PMCid:PMC134390
Metschnikoff VE . 1884. Ueber eine Sprosspilzkrank-heit der Daphnien. Beitrag zur Lehre über den Kampf der Phagocyten gegen Krankheit serreger. Virc Arcv. 96: 177–195.
Nair CPR, Danielm M, Ponnamma KN. 1997. Integrated Pest Management in palms; Nambiar KKN, Nair MK (Eds.). Coconut Development Board, Kochi, India 30 pp.
Nishi O, Iiyama K, Yasunaga-Aoki C, Shimizu S. 2011. Incongruence between EF-1Î± Phylogeny and Morphology of Metarhizium majus and Metarhizium guizhouense in Japan. Entomotech. 34: 19–23.
Pradnya BM, Pandurang BM. 2014. Efficacy of newer molecules of insecticides against white grub in sugarcane. Asian J Bio Sci. 9:173–177. Crossref.
Ramle M, Norman K, Ang, BN, Ramlah Ali SA, Basri MW. 2007. Application of powder formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae to control Oryctes rhinoceros in rotting oil palm residues under leguminous cover crops. J Oil Palm Res. 19: 318–330.
Ramle M, Norman K, Mohd BW. 2009. Pathogenicity of granule formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae against the larvae of the oil palm rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.). J Oil Palm Res. 2: 602–612.
Sahayaraj K, Karthick S. 2008. Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi using agricultural products and by products. Afr J Biotechnol. 7(12): 1907–1910. Crossref.
Shanmugam PS, Saravanan NA, Tamilselvan N. 2014. Assessment of biofungicides, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae against sugarcane white grub, Holotrichia serrata, Ind Jou Plant Prot. 42(4): 467–469.
Srikanth J, Santhalakshmi G, Tamizharasi V. 2006. Viability and virulence of selected Beauveria brongniartii formulations against Holotrichia serrata. Sugar Tech. 8(2&3): 152–154. Crossref.
Srikanth J, Santhalakshmi G, Nirmala R. 2011. An improved bioassay method for entomopathogenic fungi of sugarcane pests and its evaluation in studies of virulence in subcultures. Sugar Tech. 13(2): 156–165. Crossref.
Tashiro H. 1973. Bionomics and control of root feeding insect pests: grubs and billbugs. Bull Entomol Soc Am. 9: 92–94. Crossref.
Thamarai Chelvi C, Thilagaraj RW, Nalini R. 2011. Field efficacy of formulations of microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Hyphocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for the control of sugarcane white grub Holotrichia serrata F (Coleoptera :Scarabidae). J Biopest. 4(2): 186–189.4
Veen KH, Ferron P. 1966. A selective medium for isolation of Beauveria tenella and of Metarrhizium anisopliae. J Invertebr Pathol. 8: 268–269. Crossref.
Veeresh GK, Veerarajan, PV, Gubbaiah R, Vijaymohan N. 1977. Efficacy of certain soil insecticides against root grubs (H. serrata F.) under irrigated and unirrigated conditions in tropical soils. Proceedings All India Symposiums on Soil Biology and Ecology, (2), pp. 23-31, 1977.
Yamini Varma CK. 2013. Efficacy of ecofriendly management against Rhinoceros beetle grubs in coconut. J Biopest. 6(2): 101–103