Accelerated Internationalisation – Drivers of the Born Global Firm



Born Global, Accelerated Internationalisation


The Born Global firm is a manifestation of the phenomenon of accelerated internationalization, and is increasingly active in the international economy changing the dynamics of international competition and challenging the traditional stage model of internationalization. This paper examines the characteristic features of the Born Global firm, and factors responsible for its emergence in the context of a dynamic global business environment.


Alahuhta, M. (1990), Global Growth Strategies for High Technology Challenger, Helsinki: ACTA Polytechnica, Scandinavia.

Almor, T. (2000), Born Global: The Case of Small and Medium Sized, Knowledge-Intensive, Israeli Firms, in T.Almor, and N.Hashai (eds.), FDI, International Trade and the Economics of Peacemaking, The College of Management, Academic Studies Division.

Autio, E., H.J.Sapienza and J.G.Almeida (2000), Effects of Age at Entry, Knowledge Intensity, and Imitability on International Growth, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No.5, pp. 909-924.

Bonacorsi, A. (1992), "On the Relationship between Firm Size and Export Intensity”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 23, No.4, pp. 605–625.

Busch, A. et al. (2004), "Macht im Netz”, Wirtschaftswoche, Vol. 30, pp. 42-47.

Caves, R.E. (1996), Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis (Second Edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Caves, R.E. (1971), "International Corporations: The International Economics of Foreign Investment”, Economica, Vol. 38, pp.1-17.

Coviello, N.E. and H.J.Munro (1995), "Growing the Entrepreneurial Firm”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.29, No.7, pp. 49-61.

Di Gregorio, D., M.Musteen and D.E.Thomas (2008), "International New Ventures: the Cross-BorderNexus of Individuals and Opportunities”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp.186–196.

Ebay (2006), Announces Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2005 Financial Results,, 18.01.2006.

Johanson, J. and J.E.Vahlne (1977), "The Internationalization Process of the Firm: A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 23-32.

Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture's Consequences, Thousand Oaks-London-New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Hoskisson, R., L.Eden, C.M.Lau and M.Wright (2000), "Strategy in Emerging Economies”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp.249–267.

Kandasaami, S. (1998), "Internationalisation of Small- and Medium-sized Born Global Firms: A Conceptual Model”, Research Paper, Graduate School of Management, University of Western Australia.

Kandasaami, S. and X.Huang (2000), "International Marketing Strategy of SMEs: A Comparison of Born-Global vs Non Born-Global Firms in Australia, Paper presented at the ICSB Conference, Brisbane, June 2000.

Khanna, T. and K.G.Palepu (1997), "Why Focused Strategies may be wrong for Emerging Markets”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 41-51.

Knight, G.A. (2000), "Entrepreneurship and Marketing Strategy: the SME under Globalization”, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.12-33.

Knight, G.A. and S.T.Cavusgil (1996), "The Born Global Firm: A Challenge to Traditional Internationalization Theory”, pp. 11-26 in T.K.Madsen (eds.), Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 8, JAI Press, Amsterdam.

Lindqvist, M. (1991), "Infant Multinationals: The Internationalization of Young, Technology Based Swedish Firms”, Dissertation, Stockholm School of Economics, Institute of International Business.

Logitech (2005), Annual Report 2005, Apples, Switzerland.

Lummaa, H.J. (2002), "Internationalization Behavior of Finnish Born Global Companies”, Master Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology.

Madsen, T.K., E.Rasmussen and P.Servais (2000), "Differences and Similarities between Born Globals and Other Types of Exporters, pp. 247-265, A.Yaprak & H.Tütek, (eds.), Globalization, the Multinational Firm, and Emerging Economies, JAI Press, Amsterdam.

Mahnke, V. and M.Venzin (2003), "The Internationlization Process of Digital Information Good Providers”, Management International Review, Vol.1 (Special Issue), pp. 115-142.

McNaughton, R.B. (2000), "Determinants of Time-Span to Foreign Market Entry”, Journal of Euromarketing, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 99-112.

Nayyar, D. (2008), "Internationalisation of Firms from India: Investment, Mergers and Acquisitions”, in Trade and Globalisation, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

North, D. (1990), Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Oviatt, B.M. and P.P.McDougall (1994), "Towards a Theory of International New Ventures”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 45-64.

Peng, M.W. (2003), "Institutional Transitions and Strategic Choices”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 275–296.

Ray, S. (2003), "Strategic Adaptation of Firms during Economic Liberalization: Emerging Issues and a Research Agenda”, International Journal of Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 271–281.

Ray, S. and R.Chitoor (2007), "Internationalisation as a Strategic Response to Institutional Transition: Evidence from the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry”, WPS 608/2007, IIM Kolkatta.

Ribeiro, F.F. and J.E.Pimentel (2012), "Empresas born globals brasileiras: a influíªncia do perfil do empreendedor e da localizaçí£o geográfica”, Caderno de Administraçí£o, ISSN 1414-7394, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Rennie, M.W. (1993), "Global Competitiveness: Born Global”, The McKinsey Quarterly, Vol. 3, pp.


Scott, W.R. (1995), Institutions and Organisations, Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks.

Shane, S. (2000), "Prior Knowledge and the Discovery of Entrepreneurial Opportunities”, Organization Science, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 448–469.

Shane, S. (2003), A General Theory of Entrepreneurship: The Individual-Opportunity Nexus, Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Varma, S. (2009), "International Venturing by IT Firms: A Motive Analysis”, Journal of Emerging Knowledge on Emerging Markets, Vol. 1, No. 1, papers/article/view/24/11.

Varma, S. (2011), "Born Global Acquirers from Indian IT – an Exploratory Case Study”, International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 351-368, Emerald Publications.

Varma, S. (2013), "International Entrepreneurial Capability as a Driver of the Born Global Firm – A Case Study from India”, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, Vol. 6, Nos. 1/2, pp. 42–61.

Zhang, M., P.Tansuhaj and J.McCullough (2009), "International Entrepreneurial Capability: The Measurement and a Comparison between Born Global Firms and Traditional Exporters in China”, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 292–322.




How to Cite

Varma, S. (2018). Accelerated Internationalisation – Drivers of the Born Global Firm. Journal of Business Thought, 4, 81–92. Retrieved from