Oral health in India: Researchers’ Perspective Part 2- Periodontal Diseases, Geriatric Dentistry and Special Health Care Needs


  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Deformities, Centre for Dental Education and Research, New Delhi, Delhi, 110029, India
  • Ace Medical and Dental Publishing, New Delhi, India
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Division of Periodontics, Centre for Dental Education and Research, New Delhi, Delhi, 110029, India
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Division of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Centre for Dental Education and Research, New Delhi, Delhi, 110029, India
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, 110029, India


Periodontal disease, a cumulative result of neglected oral hygiene, is one of the biggest oral health problem in India. Although the latest researches have paved way to splendid measures for regeneration and rehabilitation, the most feasible strategy is still the prevention at the earliest possible stage of periodontal destruction. Other major areas of neglect and lack of public awareness are geriatric dentistry and patients with special health care needs. This paper attempts to elaborate on the burden, past research and future research directions in less addressed aspects of Periodontal diseases, Geriatric Dentistry and patients with special health care needs.


Biosensor, Oral Cancer, Oral Health, Periodontal Regeneration, Research

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Shah N, Pandey RM, Duggal R, Mathur VP, Parkash H, Sundaram KR. Oral Health in India. A report of Multicentric study. Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and WHO collaborative programme; 2007.

Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, Estupinan-Day S, Ndiaye C. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83:661–669. PMid:16211157. PMCid:PMC2626328

Hobdell M, Petersen PE, Clarkson J, Johnson N. Global goals for oral health 2020. Int Dent J. 2003;53:285–288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1875-595X.2003.tb00761.x. PMid:14560802

Jin LJ, Lamster I, Greenspan JS, Pitts N, Scully C, Warnakulasuriya S. Global burden of oral diseases: Emerging concepts, management and interplay with systemic health. Oral Dis. 2016;22:609–619. https://doi.org/10.1111/odi.12428. PMid:26704694

ICMR. Oral Health: ICMR Bulletin. 1994 Apr;24.

Bishen KA, Chhabra KG, Sagari S, Gupta P. Nationwide survey on barriers for dental research in India. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2015;7:201–206. https://doi.org/10.4103/09757406.160017. PMid:26229354. PMCid:PMC4517322

Luthra UK, Tewari A, Shah B, Prabhakar AK. Perspectives of Research in Oral Health. J Indian Dent Assoc. 1986;38:289.

Pourabbas R, Kashefimehr A, Rahmanpour N, Babaloo Z, Kishen A, Tenenbaum HC et al. Position paper: Epidemiology of periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2005;76:1406–1419.

https://doi.org/10.1902/ jop.2005.76.8.1406. PMid:16101377

Kassebaum NJ, Bernabé E, Dahiya M, Bhandari B, Murray CJ, Marcenes W. Global burden of severe periodontitis in 1990-2010: A systematic review and meta-regression. J Dent Res. 2014;93: 1045–1053. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034514552491. PMid:25261053 PMCid:PMC4293771

Chapple IL, Wilson NH. Manifesto for a paradigm shift: Periodontal health for a better life. Br Dent J. 2014;216:159– 162. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.97. PMid:24557384

Agarwal V, Khatri M, Singh G, Gupta G, Marya CM, Kumar V. Prevalence of Periodontal Diseases in India. J Oral Health Comm Dent. 2010;4:7–16.

Vandana KL, Reddy MS. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs. Indian J Dent Res. 2007;18(2):67– 71. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.32423

Singh GPI, Bindra J, Soni RK, Sood M. Prevalence periodontal disease in Ludhiana, Punjab. Indian J Community Med. 2005;30:127–129.

Shah N, Sundaram KR. Impact of socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health status of Indian elderly: A community-based study. Indian J Dent Res. 2003;14(4):289–297. PMid:15328999

Srivastava R, Gupta SK, Mathur VP, Goswami A, Nongkynrih B. Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal Diseases, and their association with Socio-demographic risk factors among older Persons in Delhi, India: A communitybased study. South-east Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44:523–533. PMid:24050085

National oral health survey and fluoride mapping. an epidemiological study of oral health problems and estimation of fluoride levels in drinking water. Dental Council of India, New Delhi, 2004;32; 67–78.

Shaju JP, Zade RM, Das M. Prevalence of periodontitis in the Indian population: A literature review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15:29–34. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972124X.82261 PMid:21772718. PMCid:PMC3134042

AlMoharib HS, AlMubarak A, AlRowis R, Geevarghese A, Preethanath RS, Anil S. Oral fluid based biomarkers in periodontal disease: Part 1. saliva. J Int Oral Health. 2014;6:95–103. PMid:25214743 PMCid:PMC4148585

AlRowis R, AlMoharib HS, AlMubarak A, Bhaskardoss J, Preethanath RS, Anil S. Oral fluid-based biomarkers in periodontal disease – Part 2. Gingival crevicular fluid. J Int Oral Health. 2014;6:126–135. PMid:25395809. PMCid:PMC4229821

Banjar W, Alshammari MH. Genetic factors in pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2014;9:245–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2014.04.003

Tenenbaum HC, Tenenbaum H, Zohar R. Future treatment and diagnostic strategies for periodontal diseases. Dent Clin North Am. 2005;49:677–694. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2005.03.006. PMid:15978247

Taheri JB, Azimi S, Rafieian N, Zanjani HA. Herbs in dentistry. Int Dent J. 2011;61:287–296. https://doi.

org/10.1111/j.1875-595X.2011.00064.x. PMid:22117784

Shah N. Geriatric oral health issues in India. Int Dent J. 2001;51:212–218. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1875595X.2001.tb00869.x. PMid:11561881

Agrawal R, Gautam NR, Kumar PM, Kadhiresan R, Saxena V, Jain S. Assessment of dental caries and periodontal disease status among elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7:57–64. PMid:26464541. PMCid:PMC4588792

Razak PA, Richard KM, Thankachan RP, Hafiz KA, Kumar KN, Sameer KM. Geriatric oral health: a review article. J Int Oral Health. 2014;6:110–116. PMid:25628498. PMCid:PMC4295446

Srivastava R, Nongkynrih B, Mathur VP, Goswami A, Gupta SK. High burden of dental caries in geriatric population of India: a systematic review. Indian J Public Health. 2012;56:129–132. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019557X.99903. PMid:22910621

Surendran S, Sivamurthy G. Current applications and future prospects of stem cells in dentistry. Dent Update. 2015;42:556–558,560–561. https://doi.org/10.12968/denu.2015.42.6.556. PMid:26506811

Tandon S, Saha R, Rajendran R, Nayak R. Dental pulp stem cells from primary and permanent teeth: Quality analysis. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010;35:53–58.

https://doi.org/10.17796/jcpd.35.1.e33x0135r7670287. PMid:21189765

Lee JS, Jung JS, Im GI, Kim BS, Cho KS, Kim CS. Ridge regeneration of damaged extraction sockets using rhBMP2: an experimental study in canine. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42:678–687. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12414. PMid:25946650

Patel BJ, Dave B, Dave D, Karmakar P, Shah M, Sarvaiya B. Comparison and correlation of glucose levels in serum and saliva of both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. comparison and correlation of glucose levels in serum and saliva of both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7:70–76. PMid:26464543. PMCid:PMC4588794

Guerra EN, Acevedo AC, Leite AF, Gozal D, Chardin H, De Luca Canto G. Diagnostic capability of salivary biomarkers in the assessment of head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Oncol. 2015;51:805–818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2015.06.010. PMid:26170140

Malon RS, Sadir S, Balakrishnan M, Córcoles EP. Salivabased biosensors: Noninvasive monitoring tool for clinical diagnostics. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:962903. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/962903. PMid:25276835. PMCid:PMC4172994

Ferlay J, Parkin DM, Pisani P. Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. GLOBOCAN 2002, Lyon: IARC Press; 2004.

Mendes SF1, de Oliveira Ramos G, Rivero ER, Modolo F, Grando LJ, Meurer MI. Techniques for precancerous lesion diagnosis. J Oncol. 2011;2011:326094.

Khanna S. Immunological and biochemical markers in oral carcinogenesis: The public health perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2008;5:418–422. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph5050418. PMid:19151437. PMCid:PMC3700002

Patrikidou A, Valeri RM, Kitikidou K, Destouni C, Vahtsevanos K. Introducing cytology-based theranostics in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A pilot program. Pathol Oncol Res. 2016;22:401–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s12253-015-0017-6. PMid:26581612

Koole K, van Kempen PM, van Bockel LW, Smets T, van der Klooster Z, Dutman AC, Peeters T, Koole R, van Diest P, van Es RJ, Willems SM. FGFR4 Is a Potential Predictive Biomarker in Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Pathobiology. 2015;82:280–289.

https://doi.org/10.1159/000439536. PMid:26551585

AAPD. Guidelines for management of children with special health care needs. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry reference manual on clinical guidelines. 2012;36:161–166.

Holt K, Brazel, Bertness J. Oral health for children and adolescents with special health care needs: challenges and opportunities. 2nd Edition, Washington DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center; 2014.

Disabled Persons in India. National sample survey organisation. Report No. 485 (58/26/1); 2003. p. A1.

Al-Maweri SA, Zimmer S. Oral Health survey of 6-14-yearold children with disabilities attending special schools Yemen. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2015;39:272–276. https://doi.org/10.17796/1053-4628-39.3.272. PMid:26208074

Ameer N, Palaparthi R, Neerudu M, Palakuru SK, Singam HR, Durvasula S. Oral hygiene and periodontal status of teenagers with special needs in the district of Nalgonda. India. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16:421–425. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-124X.100923 PMid:23162340. PMCid:PMC3498715

Purohit BM, Acharya S, Bhat M. Oral health status and treatment needs of children attending special schools in South India: a comparative study. Spec Care Dentist. 2010;30:235–241. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-4505.2010.00160.x. PMid:21044103

Hegde S, Bhaskar SA. Oral Myiasis: A concealed threat to disabled children of developing countries. J Dent Child (Chic). 2015;82:112–115.

Shah N, Mathur VP, Logani A. Editors. “Guidelines for Oral health Promotion and Intervention for Handicapped Population†– as an outcome for GOI- WHO Collaborative Programme project; 2009 May.

Grewal N, Sethi T, Grewal S.Widening horizons through alternative and augmentative communication systems for managing children with special health care needs in a paediatric Dental setup. Spec Care Dentist. 2015;35:114–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/scd.12099. PMid:25444236


  • There are currently no refbacks.