Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Criteria among Adults Post Covid Pandemic Situation and Steps towards Prevention
Keywords:Metabolic syndrome, central obesity, lifestyle, NCD’s, covid-19, pandemic
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is one among the Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) which might occur due to genetic, environmental, physiological and behavioural factors. MetS is increasing alarmingly in the population. Addressing the modifiable factors to reduce the risk is of prime importance. The current study is intended to observe the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome criteria with respect to its relation to lifestyle factors among subjects post pandemic situation and the MetS incidence to understand how the disease can be prevented and the means to improve the public health. Random sampling method was used to enrol 20–50 year old (male and female) urban adults of Bengaluru into the study. Type-I-diabetics, lactating and pregnant women, post-cardiac surgery/ pre-post-transplant/ covid-19 recovered patients were excluded. Height, weight, Waist-Circumference (WC) and hip-circumference were measured. BMI and Waist–Hip Ratio (WHR) were calculated. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), Triglycerides (TG), HDL, Blood Pressure (BP) values were analysed and recorded. Diet recall was captured and calories consumed per day was estimated. The habits of exercise routine, smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol were observed. IDF (International Diabetes Federation, 2006) criteria was used to categorise MetS. The data was analysed using relevant statistical tools. A total of 1211 adults (females 486 and males 725) were assessed. High WC indicating central obesity was observed in 55%. High FBS was observed in 29%. Hyper-triglyceridemia was more in males (36%) than females (19%). Low HDL was observed in 65% females against 43% males. High BP was observed among 10% in males and 8% in females. Lack of exercise was observed among 81% of the adults. Due to pandemic situation 10.7% stopped doing exercise. Moderate activity in 5.6% and vigorous activity in 2.8% was recorded; 68% of the subjects were consuming >2000 calories/day on an average; 18.6% were alcoholic. MetS was observed in 10.6% and MetS-2 criteria in 33.4% and MetS-1criteria in 24.5% before pandemic situation and post pandemic there was an increase. MetS was observed in 12.2% and MetS-2criteria in 49.7% and MetS-1criteria in 27.9% post pandemic. The lack of exercise and high-calorie consumption had a significant correlation with altered lipid values and central obesity. High WC had significant relation to High BMI. WHR had very significant correlation with high FBS and TG. Women had significantly high WC compared to men. The alcohol habit had a significant correlation with hypertriglyceridemia in males. Increased calorie consumption had a moderate correlation with raised FBS and WHR. MetS was significantly observed in those who had lack of exercise, high calorie consumption and alcohol habit. Findings suggest that MetS is in rise in 31-50 year age group. Central obesity, dyslipidemia and high FBS were predominant in 31-40 year group. High BP was observed in 45-50 years age group. Identifying and educating the young adults to correct their life style is the need of the hour to reduce increase of MetS in community.
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